to expand and on to minimise the details.
What is a Credit Bureau?
1. What is a credit bureau?
A credit bureau, licensed by the RBI, is a repository of credit information of all borrowers’ of its members, which comprises of banks and financial institutions, and it is governed by the CICR Act (2005).
2. What is CIBIL? Is it the only credit bureau in India?
CIBIL (Credit Information Bureau (India) Limited) is India's first credit information company (CIC) that maintains a centralized information repository on consumers and businesses regarding a borrower’s credit history. CIBIL collects and maintains records of a borrower’s (individual as well as companies) repayments pertaining to loans/ credit cards. Banks and other financial institutions submit individual borrower’s repayments records to CIBIL on a monthly basis. CIBIL uses such information to create Credit Information Reports (CIR) and Credit Scores (for individuals) of such borrowers and provide the same to lenders in order to help them evaluate and approve loan/credit card applications. CIBIL is not the only credit bureau in India. There are 3 other Bureaus in India as on date: Equifax, Experian and High Mark. It is mandatory for every lending institution to report their data to at least one Bureau as per the CICR Act (2005).
3. What is a Credit Score?
A Credit Score is a three digit numeric value (ranging from 300-900) which indicates a customer’s creditworthiness basis his credit information reported by the lending institution. The main parameters determining the CIBIL score are Payment History, Credit Utilization, Length of Credit History, etc. It essentially indicates the ‘probability of default’ of a customer over a 12 months performance window A borrower who has a strong credit history will have a higher credit score (closer to 900). Higher the Credit score i.e., the CIBIL TransUnion Score, higher the chances of your loan getting approved. The CIBIL TransUnion Score is a proprietary of CIBIL and TransUnion and its member institutions have no role in determining the same.
How Does a Credit Bureau Work?
4. How does a credit bureau report a customer’s details?
A credit bureau accumulates and assembles the data of a borrower from his/her lending institution. The lending institutions report their customers’ data to the Bureau regularly and the same gets updated in the Bureau database. These details are used to create a Customer’s Credit Information Report (CIR). The report generated, primarily contains an individual’s borrowings, credit card spends, monthly repayment track record, outstanding amounts across banks and financial institutions. A credit score is generated by CIBIL basis the information as reported by the various member institutions.
5. Is CIBIL a list of defaulters?
CIBIL maintains account information of various loan customers and credit card customers, irrespective of their default status.
6. Who contributes credit information to CIBIL?
The information is contributed by banks and financial institutions that are members of CIBIL.
7. Are all customers' names reported to CIBIL?
Customers who have applied for or availed of a loan or a credit card from a CIBIL member are reported to CIBIL. Details of liability accounts such as savings, fixed deposits and recurring deposits are not shared with CIBIL.
8. Does the Bureau decide whether the member should lend or not?
No. The CIBIL Credit report is merely a statement of the facts reported by the members. Lending decisions are taken by individual institutions basis internal parameters and Risk appetite.
9. What are the contents of and how do I read a CIBIL Credit report?
CIBIL CIR contains all information such as repayment track, loan type, amount outstanding, loan amount disbursed, etc. in relation to all the credit facilities availed, e.g., home loan, credit card, personal loan, auto loan, overdraft facilities. The report also contains customer's personal information like name, address, date of birth, phone number(s), passport number, voter's ID number, PAN, etc. To understand your CIBIL CIR in detail, click here Commercial credit report contains details of borrowings by commercial entities and its contents are akin to that of a consumer CIR. Additionally, details pertaining to the commercial entity like legal constitution, registration number, etc. are also incorporated.
How Does a Good Credit History Help Me?
A credit worthy customer will attract better loan amounts and favorable interest rates basis a good credit history and score. Any payment default will result in the credit history being impacted negatively thus rendering the borrower less eligible for a new credit or continuing with the current product.
10. How is the score related to a loan?
The CIBIL TransUnion Score, along with other variables like balance on other loans/cards of the customer, is used to evaluate the credit worthiness of a customer, it predicts the likelihood of default of a customer basis his past payment history. Most Lending institutions use the credit score, as one of the determining factors, to evaluate the credit worthiness of a customer. A robust credit history & hence a higher score enhances the possibility of getting promising credit facilities.
11. How can I improve my score?
By being regular and disciplined in making your payments and settling all outstanding charges against your name, you can improve your score.
12. Can a customer access his/her credit score and report through CIBIL's website?
Yes. A customer can access his CIBIL TransUnion Score and Report from the CIBIL website directly upon payments & verification rules laid down by CIBIL. Please click here for a detailed process on the same. Any dispute in the CIBIL report can be addressed to CIBIL or can be directly initiated with the respective member banks/institutions.
13. How to address any inaccuracy in the CIBIL report?
It is always a good practice to check your Credit Information Report (CIR) on a regular basis to ensure there are no inaccuracies reflecting on your report which in turn could affect your loan approval chances. CIBIL reports the information as reported by the member institutions. CIBIL cannot make any change in the CIR directly. Any correction in the CIR should be confirmed by the respective bank/ financial institution. For various queries relating to incorrect reporting in your CIR and the dispute resolution, please click here.
14. Can a customer's name be removed from CIBIL's database?
Member banks/financial institutions share credit information of their customers with CIBIL on a monthly basis. No exclusion to the reporting process is allowed.
15. If a loan/credit-card application is rejected, will it reflect in the credit report?
A credit report reflects credit information reported by member banks/financial institutions. Hence, details of loan/credit card applications, which get rejected, are not available in the credit report. However, information about the frequency of CIR/Commercial report enquired by a member institution can be obtained from the “Enquiries” section in the report.
16. How many days does it take to update a customer's payment status?
Customers' account information is sent to CIBIL once a month for update. It generally takes 45-60 days to update the record in CIBIL's database.
17. Can a customer's repayment track be overwritten in Credit Bureau’s data base?
Member banks/financial institutions report data to credit bureau on a regular basis; thus in case of a delinquent customer, if a customer has cleared all of his/her over dues in the current month the repayment track in his/her credit report will be updated in subsequent reporting. The records for the previous period will, however, continue to reflect the past behavior.
18. If a loan is denied to a customer by one bank on the grounds of the Credit report, will it be denied by other banks too?
Approval or rejection of a credit application depends on the individual bank's credit policies. Rejection by one bank on the grounds of the Credit report might not necessarily imply rejection by another bank.
19. My CIBIL report generated by ‘X’ financial institution does not show the details of other loans/credit cards that I maintain with other banks and/or financial institutions.
CIBIL's report generated by ‘X’ institution will show all the loans/cards relations the customer has with various banks, but without the identities of the other banks being indicated. In other words, ‘X’ institution officials will not know the name of the other banks with which the customer has loans/cards relationships. The names of the other banks will appear as “Not Disclosed”. This has been done to ensure privacy. However, if the customer wants complete details on the Credit report, they can do so by logging on to www.cibil.com and purchasing their CIBIL TransUnion Score and CIR.
For any further understanding/enquiry on your report a) Visit www.cibil.com b) SBI Cards: click here for contact details.